Source Citations
Chapter 1
  1. Mastin, D., Metzger, S., Golden J., (2013), Foster Care and Disconnected Youth: A Way Forward for New York, The Community Service Society and The Children’s Aid Society 2013, Retrieved from
  2. Pecora, P., Kessler, R., Williams, J. et al. (2005), Improving Outcomes for Older Youth in Foster Care: Findings from the Northwest Foster Care Alumni Study, Casey Family Programs, Retrieved from
  3. National Working Group on Foster Care and Education (2014), Fostering Success in Education: National Fact Sheet on the Educational Outcomes of Children in Foster Care, The Legal Center for Foster Care and Education, Retrieved from
  4. Dworsky, A., Smithgall, C., & Courtney, M.E. (2014), Supporting Youth Transitioning out of Foster Care, Urban Institute & Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago, Retrieved from
  5. California Partner Pathways (2013), Partnerships for Success: Case studies in successful collaboration between child welfare and higher education, California College Pathways, Retrieved from
  6. Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board (2011), Passport to College Promise Scholarship: Washington’s commitment to students from foster care, Retrieved from
  7. College for All Texans (2017), Tuition exemption for current or former foster care students under the conservatorship of the Texas Department of Family and Protective Services (TDFPS), Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, Retrieved from
  8. Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (2017), Texas Higher Education Foster Care Liaisons Information & Reference Guide, Retrieved from
  9. Please see Chapter 3 for more information about FYCSI.
Chapter 2
  1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children's Bureau, (2018), Adoption and Foster Care Analysis Reporting System (AFCARS) FY2017 data. (AFCARS Report, August 2018), Retrieved from
  2. NYS Office of Children and Family Services Bureau of Research, Evaluation and Performance Analytics (2018), 2017 Bright Spots Data Package: Table 7b, Retrieved from
  3. Pecora, P., Kessler, R., Williams, J. et al. (2005), Improving Outcomes for Older Youth in Foster Care.
  4. Mastin, D., Metzger, S., Golden J., (2013), Foster Care and Disconnected Youth.
  5. Success Beyond 18 (2013), Aging out of Foster Care in America, The Annie E. Casey Foundation, Retrieved from
  6. The New York Education and Training Voucher Program
Chapter 3
  1. Adapted from FYSI Taskforce (2007), “Providing Effective Financial Assistance to Students from Foster Care and Unaccompanied Homeless Youth: A Key to Higher Education Access and Success,” Casey Family Programs, Retrieved from
  2. FinAid!, Higher Education Act of 1965, Retrieved from
Chapter 4
  1. The AFCARS Report. Preliminary FY 2018 Estimates as of August 22, 2019 – No. 26. Access from:
Chapter 5
  1. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Postsecondary Success, Today’s College Students. Interactive Demographics, Retrieved from
Chapter 6
  1. AB 1393 of 2009 requires California Community Colleges, California State University and University of California to provide priority access to campus housing for eligible foster youth.
  2. RCW 28B.117.040 Identification of eligible students and applicants – Duties of institutions of higher education, the department of social and health services, and the department of children, youth and families.
  3. Burley, M., & Lemon, M. (2012), Passport to College Promise: College Assistance and Support for Former Foster Youth, Washington State Institute for Public Policy, Retrieved from
  4. This TAP data from 2014 to 2017 was retrieved through a FOIL request to the Higher Education Services Corporation in 2018, which shows an increase in the number of students from foster care attending college each year after the launch of FYCSI awareness and outreach campaigns.